Your Activated But Limited-Capacity Memory Is Called ________ Memory.

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Name: __________________________ Date: _____________1. The process of encoding refers toA) the persistence of learning over time.B) the recall of information previously learned.C) getting information into memory.D) a clear memory of an emotionally significant event.2. The process of getting information out of memory is calledA) encoding.B) relearning.C) retrieval.D) rehearsal.3. Some information in our fleeting ________ is encoded into short-term memory.A) repressed memoryB) sensory memoryC) flashbulb memoryD) long-term memory4. Your consciously activated but limited-capacity memory is called ________ memory.A) short-termB) implicitC) mood-congruentD) explicit5. During her psychology test, Kelsey could not remember the meaning of the term proactive interference.Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the fourth line of a left-handpage in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms ofA) automatic processing.B) the spacing effect.C) imagination inflation.D) the serial position effect.6. You are most likely to automatically encode information aboutA) politicians” names.B) friends” birthdays.C) new phone numbers.D) the sequence of your day”s events.7. In an effort to remember how to spell “rhinoceros,” Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is usinga technique known asA) rehearsal.B) the peg-word system.C) chunking.D) the serial position effect.8. Priming is to retrieval as rehearsal is toA) encoding.B) chunking.C) imagery.D) automatic processing.Page 19. Jamille performs better on foreign language vocabulary tests if she studies the material 15 minutes everyday for 8 days than if she crams for 2 hours the night before the test. This illustrates what is known asA) the spacing effect.B) the serial position effect.C) chunking.D) automatic processing.10. The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known asthe ________ effect.A) serial positionB) misinformationC) imaginationD) spacing11. The day after Kirsten was introduced to 13 people at a business luncheon, she could recall the names ofonly the first 4 people to whom she had been introduced. Her effective recall of these particular names bestillustrates the benefits ofA) automatic processing.B) rehearsal.C) flashbulb memory.D) the peg-word system.12. The fact that our preconceived ideas contribute to our ability to process new information best illustrates theimportance ofA) semantic encoding.B) retroactive interference.C) iconic memory.D) repression.13. Superior memory for rap lyrics that include the most rhymes best illustrates the value ofA) the spacing effect.B) mood-congruent memory.C) the serial position effect.D) acoustic encoding.14. We are more likely to remember the words “typewriter, cigarette, and fire” than the words “void, process,and inherent.” This best illustrates the value ofA) long-term potentiation.B) flashbulb memory.C) imagery.D) iconic memory.15. A mnemonic device is aA) sensory memory.B) test or measure of memory.C) technique for automatic processing.D) memory aid.16. Chunking refers toA) getting information into memory through the use of visual imagery.B) the organization of information into meaningful units.C) the unconscious encoding of incidental information.D) the tendency to recall best the first item in a list.Page 217. Using the mnemonic ROY G. BIV to remember the colors of the rainbow in the order of wavelengthillustrates the use ofA) rosy retrospection.B) an acronym.C) the spacing effect.D) the peg-word system.18. A momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli is called ________ memory.A) echoicB) implicitC) iconicD) flashbulb19. The address for obtaining tickets to a popular quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappearsbefore Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he hasretained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates ________memory.A) iconicB) implicitC) echoicD) statedependent20. For a moment after hearing his dog”s high-pitched bark, Mr. Silvers has a vivid auditory impression of thedog”s yelp. His experience most clearly illustrates ________ memory.A) short-termB) iconicC) implicitD) echoic21. Some of the information in our ________ memory is encoded into ________ memory.A) iconic; short-termB) short-term; sensoryC) flashbulb; short-termD) long-term; iconic22. “The Magical Number Seven, plus or minus two” refers to the storage capacity of ________ memory.A) short-termB) explicitC) flashbulbD) implicit23. Which type of memory has an essentially unlimited capacity?A) echoic memoryB) short-term memoryC) long-term memoryD) iconic memory24. The increase in synaptic firing potential that contributes to memory formation is known asA) chunking.B) automatic processing.C) long-term potentiation.D) proactive interference.Page 325. Joshua vividly recalls his feelings and what he was doing at the exact moment when he heard of hisgrandfather”s unexpected death. This best illustratesA) sensory memory.B) proactive interference.C) flashbulb memory.D) the serial position effect.26. A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in ________ memory.A) iconicB) implicitC) echoicD) long-term27. By shrinking the hippocampus, prolonged stress is most likely to inhibit the process ofA) source misattribution.B) proactive interference.C) long-term memory formation.D) repression.28. After having a stroke, Aaron has great difficulty recalling any of his subsequent life experiences. He ismost likely suffering fromA) long-term potentiation.B) repression.C) mood-congruent memory.D) amnesia.29. A retention of skills and dispositions without conscious recollection is known as ________ memory.A) state-dependentB) flashbulbC) short-termD) implicit30. Which memory test would most effectively reveal that Mr. Quintano, at age 55, still remembers many ofhis high school classmates?A) recallB) recognitionC) rehearsalD) reconstruction31. Words, events, places, and emotions that trigger our memory of the past are calledA) retrieval cues.B) iconic traces.C) context effects.D) chunks.32. When 80-year-old Ida looked at her old wedding pictures, she was flooded with vivid memories of herparents, her husband, and the early years of her marriage. The pictures served as powerfulA) encoding devices.B) iconic memories.C) implicit memories.D) retrieval cues.Page 433. Hearing the word “rabbit” may lead people to spell the spoken word “hair” as “h-a-r-e.” This bestillustrates the outcome of a process known asA) chunking.B) retroactive interference.C) repression.D) priming.34. While in a context similar to one you”ve been in before, you see a stranger who looks and walks like one ofyour friends. These circumstances are likely to trigger the experience ofA) déjà vu.B) implicit memory.C) rosy retrospection.D) proactive interference.35. After his last drinking spree, Fakim hid a half-empty liquor bottle. He couldn”t remember where he hid ituntil he started drinking again. Fakim”s pattern of recall best illustratesA) the spacing effect.B) proactive interference.C) the serial position effect.D) statedependent memory.36. When Tony is in a bad mood, he interprets his parents” comments as criticisms. When he”s in a good mood,he interprets the same types of parental comments as helpful suggestions. This best illustrates that ouremotional states influence the process ofA) source amnesia.B) encoding.C) repression.D) retrieval.37. Whenever he feels sexually jealous, David is flooded with painful memories of instances when he thoughthis girlfriend was flirting with other men. David”s experience best illustratesA) source misattribution.B) retroactive interference.C) mood-congruent memory.D) the misinformation effect.38. The inability to recall which numbers on a telephone dial are not accompanied by letters is most likely duetoA) encoding failure.B) the spacing effect.C) retroactive interference.D) source amnesia.39. The inability to remember how Lincoln”s head appears on a penny is most likely due to a failure inA) encoding.B) storage.C) retrieval.D) implicit memory.40. The famous Ebbinghaus forgetting curve indicates that how well we remember information depends onA) how long ago we learned that information.B) the nature of our mood during encoding and retrieval.C) whether the information is part of our implicit or explicit memory.D) whether the information was acoustically or visually encoded.Page 541. Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend”s name. Judy”s poor memorymost likely results from a failure inA) storage.B) encoding.C) rehearsal.D) retrieval.42. The title of a song is on the tip of Gerard”s tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions thesongwriter”s name. Gerard”s initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused byA) encoding failure.B) statedependent memory.C) retrieval failure.D) repression.43. Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriend”s telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his newgirlfriend”s number. Arnold”s difficulty best illustratesA) retroactive interference.B) rosy retrospection.C) source amnesia.D) proactive interference.44. After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combinationfor his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects ofA) source amnesia.B) retroactive interference.C) proactive interference.D) automatic processing.45. Memory of your familiar old e-mail password may block the recall of your new password. This illustratesA) source amnesia.B) retroactive interference.C) the serial position effect.D) proactive interference.46. Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failurebest illustratesA) source amnesia.B) proactive interference.C) motivated forgetting.D) the spacing effect.47. A type of motivated forgetting in which anxiety-arousing memories are blocked from conscious awarenessis known asA) retroactive interference.B) proactive interference.C) repression.D) priming.48. Sigmund Freud emphasized that the forgetting of painful experiences is caused by a process that involvesA) retroactive interference.B) memory decay.C) retrieval failure.D) long-term potentiation.Page 649. Research on memory construction indicates that memories of past experiences are likely to beA) difficult to retrieve but never completely lost.B) distorted by our current assumptions.C) much more vivid if they are seldom rehearsed.D) retrieved in the very same form and detail as they were originally encoded.50. Loftus and Palmer asked two groups of observers how fast two cars had been going in a filmed trafficaccident. Observers who heard the vividly descriptive word “smashed” in relation to the accident laterrecalledA) broken glass at the scene of the accident.B) that the drivers of the vehicles were intoxicated.C) that the drivers of the vehicles were males.D) the details of the accident with vivid accuracy.51. Many of the experimental participants who were asked how fast two cars in a filmed traffic accident weregoing when they smashed into each other subsequently recalled seeing broken glass at the scene of theaccident. This experiment best illustratedA) proactive interference.B) the self-reference effect.C) the spacing effect.D) the misinformation effect.52. The misinformation effect best illustrates the dynamics ofA) memory construction.B) repression.C) proactive interference.D) mood-congruent memory.53. After attending group therapy sessions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Karen mistakenlyremembered details from others” traumatic life stories as part of her own life history. This best illustratesthe dangers ofA) proactive interference.B) mood-congruent memory.C) implicit memory.D) source amnesia.54. Police interrogators have been trained to ask less suggestive and more effective questions to avoidA) long-term potentiation.B) the misinformation effect.C) mood-congruent memory.D) the self-reference effect.55. Karl and Dee had a joyful wedding ceremony. After their painful divorce, however, they began toremember the wedding as a somewhat hectic and unpleasant event. Their recollections best illustrate thenature ofA) proactive interference.B) memory construction.C) the spacing effect.D) the serial position effect.Page 756. Which of the following techniques used by professional therapists is(are) likely to promote false memoriesin patients?A) hypnosisB) guided imageryC) dream analysisD) all of these techniques57. When memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus was an adolescent, her uncle incorrectly insisted that as a childshe had found her own mother”s drowned body. Loftus herself later falsely recollected finding the body.This best illustratesA) proactive interference.B) implicit memory.C) the misinformation effect.D) mood-congruent memory.Page 8Answer Key1.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.9.10.11.12.13.14.15.16.17.18.19.20.21.22.23.24.25.26.27.28.29.30.31.32.33.34.35.36.37.38.39.40.41.42.43.44.45.46.47.48.49.50.51.52.53.CCBAADAAAABADCDBBCADAACCCDCDDBADDADBCAAADCDBBCCCBADADPage 954.55.56.57.BBDCPage 10

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