Which Of The Following Provide The Greatest Surface Area For Gas Exchange? ?

Which of the following provide the greatest surface area for gas exchange?A. alveolar sacsB. alveolar ductsC. alveoliD. respiratory bronchioles
Inspiratory capacity is ________.A. air inspired after a tidal inhalationB. the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expirationC. functional residual capacityD. the total amount of exchangeable air
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by ________.A. interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluidB. humidifying the air before it entersC. protecting the surface of alveoli from dehydration and other environmental variationsD. warming the air before it enters
A. interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls of the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain filled with air during exhalation?A. tuberculosisB. pneumoniaC. emphysemaD. coryza
Which of the following is not true of the respiratory tract from the medium bronchi to the aveoli?A. Proportionally, smooth muscle decreases uniformly.B. Resistance to air flow increases due to the increase in cross-sectional diameter.C. Lining of the tubes changes from ciliated columnar to simple squamous epithelium in the alveoli.D. Cartilage gradually decreases and disappears at the bronchioles.

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For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________.A. 0.5 to 1 micrometer thickB. between 5 and 6 micrometers thickC. at least 3 micrometers thickD. The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange.
Which of the choices below is not a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?A. temperatureB. number of red blood cellsC. partial pressure of carbon dioxideD. partial pressure of oxygen
The larynx contains ________.A. lateral cartilage ridges called false vocal foldsB. a cricoid cartilage also called the Adam”s appleC. the thyroid cartilageD. an upper pair of avascular mucosal folds called true vocal folds
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?A. pseudostratified ciliated epitheliumB. cartilage ringsC. surface tension of waterD. surfactant
The respiratory membrane is a combination of ________.A. atria and alveolar sacsB. respiratory bronchioles and alveolar sacsC. alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranesD. respiratory bronchioles and alveolar ducts
Select the correct statement about the pharynx.A. The pharyngeal tonsil is located in the laryngopharynx.B. The laryngopharynx blends posteriorly into the nasopharynx.C. The auditory tube drains into the nasopharynx.D. The palatine tonsils are embedded in the lateral walls of the nasopharynx.

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Complete the following statement using the choices below. Air moves out of the lungs when the pressure inside the lungs isA. greater than the intra-alveolar pressure.B. greater than the pressure in the atmosphere.C. equal to the pressure in the atmosphere.D. less than the pressure in the atmosphere.

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The erythrocyte count increases after a while when an individual goes from a low to a high altitude because the ________.A. concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is higher at higher altitudesB. concentration of oxygen and/or total atmospheric pressure is lower at high altitudesC. temperature is lower at higher altitudesD. basal metabolic rate is higher at high altitudes
Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged in the lungs and through all cell membranes by ________.A. diffusionB. active transportC. osmosisD. filtration
Respiratory control centers are located in the ________.A. medulla and ponsB. midbrain and medullaC. pons and midbrainD. upper spinal cord and medulla
Unlike inspiration, expiration is a passive act because no muscular contractions are involved. Expiration, however, depends on two factors. Which of the choices below lists those two factors?A. the negative feedback of expansion fibers used during inspiration and the outward pull of surface tension due to surfactantB. the expansion of respiratory muscles that were contracted during inspiration and the lack of surface tension on the alveolar wallC. the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluidD. combined amount of CO2 in the blood and air in the alveoli
C. the recoil of elastic fibers that were stretched during inspiration and the inward pull of surface tension due to the film of alveolar fluid
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.A. abundant blood supply to nasal mucosaB. ciliated mucous lining in the noseC. action of the epiglottisD. porous structure of turbinate bones
Which of the following is not found on the right lobe of the lung?A. middle lobeB. oblique fissureC. horizontal fissureD. cardiac notch
Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated?A. decrease in lactic acid levelsB. simultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory centerC. psychic stimuliD. proprioceptors
The walls of the alveoli are composed of two types of cells, type I and type II. The function of type II is to ________.A. secrete surfactantB. trap dust and other debrisC. protect the lungs from bacterial invasionD. replace mucus in the alveoli
The nose serves all the following functions except ________.A. as a passageway for air movementB. warming and humidifying the airC. as the initiator of the cough reflexD. cleansing the air
Which statement about CO 2 is incorrect?A. CO2 concentrations are greater in venous blood than arterial blood.B. More CO2 dissolves in the blood plasma than is carried in the RBCs.C. Its concentration in the blood is decreased by hyperventilation.D. Its accumulation in the blood is associated with a decrease in pH.
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called ________.A. expiratory reserveB. reserve airC. vital capacityD. inspiratory reserve
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