The complexity and variety of organic molecules is due to _____.A) the chemical versatility of carbon atomsB) the variety of rare elements in organic moleculesC) the diverse bonding patterns of nitrogenD) their interaction with water
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The experimental approach taken in current biological investigations presumes that _____.A) simple organic compounds can be synthesized in the laboratory from inorganic precursors, but complex organic compounds like carbohydrates and proteins can be synthesized only by living organismsB) a life force ultimately controls the activities of living organisms and this life force cannot be studied by physical or chemical methodsC) living organisms are composed of the same elements present in nonliving things, plus a few special trace elements found only in living organisms or their productsD) living organisms can be understood in terms of the same physical and chemical laws that can be used to explain all natural phenomena
D) living organisms can be understood in terms of the same physical and chemical laws that can be used to explain all natural phenomena
Differences among organisms are caused by differences in the _____.A) elemental composition from organism to organismB) types and relative amounts of organic molecules synthesized by each organismC) sizes of the organic molecules in each organismD) types of inorganic compounds present in each organism
Stanley Miller”s 1953 experiments supported the hypothesis that _____.A) life on Earth arose from simple inorganic moleculesB) organic molecules can be synthesized abiotically under conditions that may have existed on early EarthC) life on Earth arose from simple organic molecules, with energy from lightning and volcanoesD) the conditions on early Earth were conducive to the origin of life
B) organic molecules can be synthesized abiotically under conditions that may have existed on early Earth
When Stanley Miller applied heat and electrical sparks to a mixture of simple inorganic compounds such as methane, hydrogen gas, ammonia, and water vapor, what compounds were produced?A) only simple organic compounds such as formaldehyde and cyanideB) mostly hydrocarbonsC) only simple inorganic compoundsD) simple organic compounds, amino acids, and hydrocarbons
Which of the following is true of carbon?A) It forms only polar molecules.B) It can form a maximum of three covalent bonds with other elements.C) It is highly electronegative.D) It can form both polar and nonpolar bonds.
Why is carbon so important in biology?A) It is a common element on Earth.B) It has very little electronegativity, making it a good electron donor.C) It bonds to only a few other elements.D) It can form a variety of carbon skeletons and host functional groups.