During the 1950s, a sense of uniformity pervaded Americansociety. Conformity was prevalent, as young and old aprefer followedteam standards quite than striking out on their very own. Though menand also womales had actually been compelled into brand-new employment trends duringWorld War II, as soon as the battle was over, typical duties werereaffirmed. Men supposed to be the breadwinners; woguys, evenonce they worked, assumed their correct area was at residence.Sociologist David Riesmale oboffered the prestige of peer-groupexpectations in his significant book, The Lonely Crowd. Hecalled this new society "other-directed," and kept thatsuch cultures bring about stcapability and conformity.Television added to the homogenizing trend by providingyoung and old via a mutual suffer showing acceptedsocial patterns.But not all Americans concreated to such social norms. A numberof writers, members of the so-referred to as "beat generation," rebelledagainst typical values. Stressing spontaneity andspirituality, they asserted intuition over reason, Easternmysticism over Western institutionalized religion. The "beats"went out of their means to obstacle the fads ofrespectcapability and shock the remainder of the society.Their literary work-related displayed their feeling of freedom. JackKerouac typed his best-marketing novel On the Road on a 75-meterroll of paper. Lacking welcomed punctuation and paragraphframework, the book glorified the possibilities of the freelife. Poet Allen Ginsberg got similar notoriety for his poem"Howl," a scapoint critique of contemporary, mechanized world.When police charged that it was obscene and seized the publishedversion, Ginsberg won national accase through a successful courtchallenge.Musicians and also artists rebelled also. Tennessee singer ElvisPresley popularized babsence music in the form of rock and also roll,and shocked more sthelp Americans with his ducktail haircut andundulating hips. In enhancement, Elvis and various other rock and also rollsingers demonstrated that tbelow was a white audience for blackmusic, thus testifying to the boosting integration of Americanculture. Painters like Jackkid Pollock discarded easels and laidout giant canvases on the floor, then used paint, sand also andvarious other materials in wild splashes of shade. All of these artistsand authors, whatever the medium, offered models for the widerand also even more deeply felt social rdevelopment of the 1960s.


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