21. The correct sequence of events in viral multiplication is: A. penetration, uncoating, synthesis, adsorption, assembly, releaseB. uncoating, penetration, synthesis, assembly, absorption, releaseC. adsorption, penetration, uncoating, synthesis, assembly, releaseD. assembly, synthesis, uncoating, release, penetration, adsorptionE. adsorption, release, synthesis, uncoating, assembly, penetration
22. Viruses acquire envelopes around their nucleocapsids during A. replication.B. assembly.C. adsorption.D. release.E. penetration.
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23. In general, most DNA viruses multiply in the host cell”s _____, while most RNA viruses multiply in the host cell”s _____. A. nucleus; cytoplasmB. cytoplasm; cell membraneC. cell membrane; cytoplasmD. cytoplasm; nucleusE. nucleus; endoplasmic reticulum
24. Host range is limited by A. type of nucleic acid in the virus.B. age of the host cell.C. type of host cell receptors on cell membrane.D. size of the host cell.
25. Oncogenic viruses include all the following except A. hepatitis B virus.B. measles virus.C. Papillomavirus.D. HTLV-I and HTLV-II viruses.E. Epstein-Barr virus.
26. Which of the following is a type of cytopathic effect? A. inclusions in the nucleusB. multinucleated giant cellsC. inclusions in the cytoplasmD. rounding of cellsE. All of the choices are correct.
27. The envelope of enveloped viruses A. is identical to the host plasma membrane.B. is only composed of host endomembrane.C. always includes spikes.D. is obtained by viral budding or exocytosis.E. makes the virus very susceptible to drug therapy.
28. Viruses attach to their hosts via A. host glycoproteins.B. host phospholipids.C. viral phospholipids.D. viral flagella.E. carbohydrate attachments of the viral capsid.
29. Viral tissue specificities are called A. ranges.B. virions.C. receptacles.D. tropisms.E. uncoating.
30. The process of dissolving the envelope and capsid to release the viral nucleic acid is A. adsorption.B. penetration.C. uncoating.D. synthesis.E. assembly.
31. Which of the following occurs during assembly? A. nucleocapsid is formedB. new viral nucleic acid is formedC. viral spikes insert in host cell membraneD. nucleocapsid is formed and viral spikes insert in host cell membraneE. the viral envelope and the host cell membrane fuse
32. Mammalian viruses capable of starting tumors are A. chronic latent viruses.B. oncoviruses.C. syncytia.D. inclusion bodies.E. cytopathic.
33. Persistent viruses that can reactivate periodically are A. chronic latent viruses.B. oncoviruses.C. syncytia.D. inclusion bodies.E. cytopathic.
34. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a transformed cell? A. viral nucleic acid integrated into host DNAB. decreased growth rateC. alterations in chromosomesD. changes in cell surface moleculesE. capacity to divide indefinitely
35. New, nonenveloped virus release occurs by A. lysis.B. budding.C. exocytosis.D. both lysis and budding.E. both budding and exocytosis.
36. What structures are used by bacteriophages to attach to host cell receptors? A. viral sheathsB. tail fibersC. nucleic acidsD. capsid heads
37. Which of the following is incorrect about prophages? A. present when the virus is in lysogeny B. formed when viral DNA enters the bacterial chromosome C. replicated with host DNA and passed on to progeny D. cause lysis of host cells E. occur when temperate phages enter host cells
38. T-even phages A. include the poxviruses.B. infect Escherichia coli cells.C. enter host cells by engulfment.D. have helical capsids.
39. The event that occurs in bacteriophage multiplication that does not occur in animal virus replication is A. adsorption to the host cells.B. injection of only the viral nucleic acid into the host cell.C. host cell synthesis of viral enzymes and capsid proteins.D. assembly of nucleocapsids.E. replication of viral nucleic acid.
40. Viruses that cause infection resulting in alternating periods of activity with symptoms and inactivity without symptoms are called A. latent.B. oncogenic.C. prions.D. viroids.E. delta agents.