Variation Occurs When Chromosomes Are Shuffled In _____., Bio Ch 13 Flashcards

If an organism is diploid and a certain gene found in the organism has 18 known alleles (variants), then any given organism of that species can/must have which of the following?

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44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes Human somatic cells contain 22 pairs of autosomes and either X chromosomes (in females) or an X and Y chromosomes (in males)
Homologous chromosomes contain the same gene loci but may have different alleles of a particular gene. Sister chromatids are identical copies of each other. One homologous chromosomes comes from the father and the mother. Sister chromatids are exact copies of each other
Which of the following statements are false? 1.) At sexual maturity, ovaries and testes produce diploid gametes by meiosis 2.) sexual life cycle differs with respect to the relative timing of meiosis and fertilization 3.) In humans, each of the 22 maternal autosomes has a homologous paternal chromosome 4.) single, haploid (n) sets of chromosomes in ovum and sperm unite during fertilization, forming a diploid (2n), single cellos zygote
The human X and Y chromosomes 1.) are called autosomes 2.) are about the same size and have approximately the same number of genes 3.) are almost entirely homologous, despite their different names 4.) include genes that determine and individual”s sex 5.) are both present in every somatic cell of males and females alike
Mitosis is commonly found in all of the following except 1.) a diploid animal cell 2.) a diploid plant cell 3.) a haploid animal cell 4.) a haploid plant cell
Which of these is a way that the sexual lifecycle increases genetic variation in a species? 1.) by allowing an increase in cell number 2.) by allowing crossing over 3.) by decreasing mutation frequency 4.) by conserving chromosomal gene order 5.) by increasing gene stability
A given organism has 46 chromosomesx in its karyotype. We can therefore conclude which of the following? 1.) it must be sexually reproducing 2.) it”s gametes must have 23 chromosomes 3,) it must be primate 4.) it must be an animal 5.) it must be a human
The somatic cells of a privet shrub each contain 46 chromosomes. To be as different as they are from human cells, which have the same number of chromosomes, which of the following must be true? 1.) genes on a particular privet chromosome, such as X, must be on a different human chromosome, such as number 18 2.) privet shrubs must be metabolically more like animals than like other shrubs 3.) genes of privet chromosomes are significantly different than those in humans 4.) privet cells cannot reproduce sexually
In a human karyotype, chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs. If we choose one of these pairs, such as pair 14, which of the following do the two chromosomes of the pair have in common? 1.) length and position of the centromere only 2.) length, centromere position, and staining pattern only 3.) length, centromere position, staining pattern and traits coded for by their genes 4.) they have nothing in common except they are X shaped 5.) length, centromere position, staining pattern and DNA sequences
Which is the smallest unit containing the entire human genome? 1.) one human chromosome 2.) one human somatic cell 3.) the entire human population 4.) all of the DNA of one human 5.) one human gene
For what purpose (s) might a karyotype be prepared? 1.) for prenatal screening, to determine if a fetus has the correct number of chromosomes 2.) to determine whether a fetus is male or female 3.) to detect possible presence of chromosomal abnormalities such as detentions, inversions, or translocations 4.) the first And second answers are correct 5.) first three answers are correct

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Which of these is a karyotype? 1.) a display of a cells mitotic stages 2.) a natural cellular arrangement of chromosomes in the nucleus 3.) organized images of cells chromosomes 4.) the appearance of an organism 5.) a display of all the cell types in an organism
A triploid cell contains three sets of chromosomes. If a cell of a usually diploid species with 42 chromosomes per cell is triploid, this cell would be expected to have which of the following? 1.) 63 chromosomes in 31 1/2 pairs 2.) 63 chromosomes in 21 sets of 3 3.) 63 chromosomes, each with three chromatids 4.) 21 chromosome pairs and 21 unique chromosomes
Which of the following best describes a karyotype? 1.) a pictorial representation of all the genes for a species 2.) a photograph of all the cells with missing or extra chromosomes 3.) the collection of all the chromosomes in an individual organism 4.) a display of each of the chromosomes of a single cell 5.) the combination of all the maternal and paternal chromosomes of a species
Meiosis 1 produces ______ cells, each of which is ____. 1) two….. Haploid 2.) two… Identical to the other 3.) four… Haploid 4.) four… Diploid 5.) two.. Diploid
Meiosis 2 typically produces _______ cells, each of which is ____ 1.) two… Haploid 2.) two… Diploid 3.) four… Haploid 4.) four… Identical to the other 5.) four… Diploid
During ______ sister chromatids separate 1.) prophase II 2.) metaphase I 3.) anaphase II 4.) prophase I 5.) interphase
Synapsis occurs during _____. 1.) metaphase II 2.) prophase I 3.) telophase I and cytokinesis 4.) prophase II 5.) anaphase II
Homologous chromosomes migrate to opposite poles during ____. 1.) metaphase I 2.) telophase II and cytokinesis 3.) prophase II 4.) anaphase I 5.) metaphase II
During _____ chromosomes align single file along the equator of a haploid cell. 1.) anaphase I 2.) metaphase I 3.) prophase I 4.) telophase I and cytokinesis 5.) metaphase II
At the end of ___ and cytokinesis there are four haploid cells. 1.) prophase I 2.) interphase 3.) telophase II 4.) prophase II 5.) anaphase I

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During ____ a spindle forms in a haploid cell. 1.) metaphase II 2.) prophase II 3.) Anaphase II 4.) prophase I 5.) telophase I and cytokinesis

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