# The Total Energy Of Motion In The Particles Of A Substance, Untitled Document

A measure of the AVERAGE energy of motion of the particles of a substance. Average KINETIC ENERGY of the particles in a substance or object.

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The TOTAL energy of motion in the particles of a substance. TOTAL KINETIC ENERGY of the particles in a substance or object.
The MOVEMENT of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature. Heat is a TRANSFER of thermal energy.
The transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact. Transfer by TOUCH.
The transfer of heat through a fluid (liquid or gas) caused by molecular motion. Transfer by MOVEMENT.
The transfer of thermal energy by electromagnetic waves. Transfer by LIGHT (infra-red light is the best at this).
Radiation is the type of heat transfer that can travel through a vacuum. Heat transfers from the sun to you through 150,000,000 kilometers of empty space!
A material that easily conducts heat. Metals are good examples. Copper and silver are very good at this.
A material that resists heat transfer. Rubber, styrofoam, water, glass, and plastic are all good examples. Hair and feathers are also good examples.

A temperature scale based upon the freezing and boiling temperatures of fresh water. Fresh water freezes/melts at 0 degrees and boils/condenses at 100 degrees on this temperature scale
A temperature scale based upon the freezing temperatures of salt water and a mismeasure of human body temperature. Salt water freezes at 0 degrees in this scale and the original measure of human body temperature was considered 96 degrees on this scale. Fresh water freezes/melts at 32 degrees and boils at 212 degrees.
Phase change from liquid to gas (happens at when too much thermal energy is added for the liquid to stay liquid–> It is FORCED to go into a gas state). Energy is increasing
Similar to boiling, but a liquid can evaporate into a gas at any temperature. Atoms or molecules that have a little more energy than their neighbors sometimes escape the liquid and become gas.
Phase change from a solid directly to a gas. Dry ice does this when it skips melting and goes straight into a gas form.
Phase change from a gas directly to a sold. Ice crystals forming frost right out of the water vapor in the air is a good example of this.
Particles have low kinetic energy and are packed together tightly. Has a DEFINITE SHAPE and DEFINITE VOLUME.
Particles have medium kinetic energy and are able to slide past each other though they are still fairly close together. Has an INDEFINITE SHAPE and a DEFINITE VOLUME.
Particles have a lot of kinetic energy and move fast and freely. Has an INDEFINITE SHAPE and INDEFINITE VOLUME
Particles have so much kinetic energy that the electrons come loose from the atomic nuclei and move about freely. Has a strong electromagnetic field. The sun is largely made of this.

Phase change from gas to plasma when atoms gain enough energy that their electrons break free and move about freely. Energy is increasing.

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