Advisory Committee On Human Radiation Test 1946-2015. Archive Number 8Dfj9D

Advisory committee on human radiation experiments pdf


The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments was established in to investigate questions of the record of the United States government with respect to human radiation experiments. The thousand-page final report of the Committee was released in October at a White House ceremony. The scandal first came to public attention in a newsletter called Science Trends in and in Mother Jones magazine in Congressman Al Gore of Tennessee chaired the hearing. Gore”s subcommittee report stated that the radiation experiments were “satisfactory, but not perfect. In Novembera report by the staff of Massachusetts Congressman Ed Markey was released, but received only cursory media coverage. Markey urged the Department of Energy to make every effort to find the experimental subjects and compensate them for damages, which did not occur. DOE officials knew who had conducted the experiments, and the names of some of the subjects. Bush resisted opening investigations of the radiation experiments. The Markey report found that between and eighteen hospital patients were injected with plutonium. The doctors selected patients likely to die in the near future. Despite the doctors” prognoses, several lived for decades after. The report stated: “Although these experiments did provide information on the retention and absorption of radioactive material by the human body, the experiments are nonetheless repugnant because human subjects were essentially used as guinea pigs and calibration devices. This report was different than Markey”s, because Welsome revealed the names of the people injected with plutonium. What got her curiosity was a report on radioactive animal carcasses. The report identified the victims only by code names. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Nation. Archived from the original on Retrieved June Chapter 5: The Manhattan district Experiments; the first injection. Washington, DC. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Hidden categories: CS1 errors: missing periodical. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Download as PDF Printable version.

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Ionizing radiation experiments

Minutes of Meeting of March Wednesday, March 15, Faden briefed members on the agenda for the twelfth meeting of the Advisory Committee. Members approved without change the minutes of the February, meeting of the Advisory Committee. Ernest Sternglass, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Sternglass discussed radiation doses and health effects, particularly what he called serious health effects of low-dose exposures from fallout and other intentional releases of radioactivity. He said the impact of chronic low-dose exposures should be considered in the Committee s discussion of remedies. Sternglass urged that the Committee recommend an independent reassessment of a National Cancer Institute study of radiation dangers to residents of counties surrounding nuclear production facilities. Oleinick questioned Dr. Sternglass about his correlation of low birth weights to strontium contamination. Elmerine Whitfield Bell, Dallas, Texas. Bell, daughter of Elmer Allen CAL-3a subject in the University of California, San Francisco plutonium injections, spoke about her father and her family s experience living with the effects of his poor health. She also presented written testimony from her daughter about Mr. Allen s life. Bell said her father was not properly informed nor did he give proper consent to plutonium injections, and she urged members to look critically at the UCSF committee report on the injections. Cooper Brown, Takoma Park, Maryland. Brown, of the Task Force on Radiation and Human Rights, presented a paper on principles the task force believes should guide remedies recommendations of the Advisory Committee. Oscar Rosen, Boston, Massachusetts. Rosen, commander of the National Association of Atomic Veterans, praised the work of the Committee in making the documentary record available to citizens. He also praised the Committee s disclosure of the experimental nature of fallout studies in Operation Jangle of Rosen urged members to address a wide range of issues of importance to veterans exposed in nuclear weapons testing. Alcalay spoke about his work since with women of Utirik, an atoll in the Marshall Islands exposed to fallout during weapons testing. He criticized Brookhaven fallout studies for failing to assess the impact of radiation on fertility and birth outcomes in the Marshalls. He urged the Committee to recommend an epidemiological study of women in the Marshalls. Denise Nelson, Bethesda, Maryland. Nelson spoke about premature deaths to downwinders from the Nevada Test Site and analogized their exposures to Nazi atrocities. Wolf said research subjects had been victimized as children in mind-control experiments, some of them involving radiation and torture.

Project qkhilltop


Government Printing Office. Superintendent of Documents U. Government Printing Office Washington, D. The site contains complete records of Advisory Committee actions as approved; complete descriptions of the primary research materials discovered and analyzed; complete descriptions of the print and non-print secondary resources used by the Advisory Committee; a copy of the Interim Report of October 21,and other information. The President created the Committee to investigate reports of possibly unethical experiments funded by the government decades ago. The members of the Advisory Committee were fourteen private citizens from around the country: a representative of the general public and thirteen experts in bioethics, radiation oncology and biology, nuclear medicine, epidemiology and biostatistics, public health, history of science and medicine, and law. Some of the experiments the Committee was asked to investigate, and particu larly a series that included the injection of plutonium into unsus pecting hospital patients, were of special concern to Secretary of Energy Hazel O”Leary. Her department had its origins in the federal agencies that had sponsored the plutonium experiments. These agencies were responsible for the development of nuclear weapons and during the Cold War their activities had been shrouded in secrecy. But now the Cold War was over. The controversy surrounding the plutonium experiments and others like them brought basic questions to the fore: How many experiments were conducted or sponsored by the government, and why? How many were secret? Was anyone harmed? What was disclosed to those subjected to risk, and what opportunity did they have for consent? By what rules should the past be judged? What remedies are due those who were wronged or harmed by the government in the past? How well do federal rules that today govern human experimentation work? What lessons can be learned for application to the future? Our Final Report provides the details of the Committee”s answers to these questions. This Executive Summary presents an overview of the work done by the Commit tee, our findings and recommendations, and the contents of the Final Report. The President directed the Advisory Committee to uncover the history of human radiation experiments during the period through It was in that the first known human radiation experiment of interest was planned, and in that the Depart ment of Health, Education and Welfare adopted regulations governing the conduct of human research, a watershed event in the history of federal protections for human subjects. In addition to asking us to investigate human radiation experi ments, the President directed us to examine cases in which the government had intentionally released radiation into the environ ment for research purposes. He further charged us with identifying the ethical and scientific standards for evaluating these events, and with making recommendations to ensure that whatever wrongdoing may have occurred in the past cannot be repeated. We were asked to address human experiments and intentional releases that involved radiation. The ethical issues we addressed and the moral framework we developed are, however, applicable to all research involving human subjects. The breadth of the Committee”s charge was remarkable. We were called on to review government programs that spanned administrations from Franklin Roosevelt to Gerald Ford.

Radioactive human


Manhattan Project personnel faced many issues working with recently discovered elements whose health effects were unknown. Scientists at the time had little understanding of the biochemical effects of plutonium or uranium, even as they and others attempted to build a bomb with these very elements. Manhattan Project leaders understood the urgency of measuring the impact of radiation on workers and established a Health Division in The concern was due to both the nature and the scale of the Project. The health division had three main objectives: to protect the health of Project workers, protect the public from any risks arising from the operation of the Project, and study radiation hazards in order to establish tolerance doses and devise methods of treatment. The Division was split into four sections: a Medical section, a Health Physics section, a Biological Research section, and a Military section. At laboratories around the country, scientists began working against the clock to understand the dangers facing Manhattan Project workers and how to protect them. Data was taken from instruments, blood and urine samples, and physical exams. Radiation experiments were performed on animals at laboratories in Chicago, Berkeley, and Rochester. However, medical experts agreed that this information was not sufficient to determine radiation guidelines for workers. By the medical team of the Manhattan Project, headed by Stafford Warren, concluded that a controlled experiment on humans was necessary. They came up with a plan to inject radioactive elements, including polonium, plutonium, and uranium, into civilian patients around the country. Between April and Julyeighteen subjects were injected with plutonium, six with uranium, five with polonium, and at least one with americium. The figure was used to simulate human radiation exposures. The materials were employed for different experimental purposes. The plutonium tests were intended to determine how excreta could be used to estimate the amount of plutonium remaining in an exposed subject. Scientists wanted to ascertain a method of determining how much radioactive material stayed in the body and for how long. The patient samples were then analyzed in affiliated labs nearby or shipped back to Los Alamos to be examined by a biomedical research team led by Dr. Wright Langham. The chemical process of determining the amount of plutonium in a sample was complex, requiring a contamination-free laboratory. The sample was dried, converted to ash, and finally dissolved in acid. In Rochester, a Manhattan Annex was established in at the Strong Memorial Hospital to study the toxicity of radioactive isotopes including plutonium, uranium, and polonium. Betweenphysicians injected six patients with uranium with the research goal of discerning the minimum dose that would produce detectable kidney damage.

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Unethical psychological experiments on humans

In the past, the role of human research subject has been fraught with danger and suffering. The ancient Hippocratic Oath specified a duty from a physician to avoid harming the patient, but that oath, highly honored today, was not even subscribed to by a majority of doctors at the time. Advances in protection for human subjects have often come in response to particular abuses or scandals. The German atrocities of World War II, some of which were committed in the name of science, led to the Nuremberg Code of international ethics, which in part spelled out the requirement that any human subject must give informed consent to the research undertaken. The disaster of thalidomide in Europe and Canada was largely averted in the United States, but thousands of patients had taken doses without being informed of the drug”s experimental nature. The brush with thalidomide helped the U. A study of abuses, written by Dr. Henry K. Beecher, helped inform government policies adopted in that year. Likewise, the discovery in the s that unwitting subjects had been allowed to suffer syphilis in the s Tuskegee Experiment preceded a call for tighter regulation of federally-funded human research. Between these unfortunate incidents, groups of regulators and researchers have worked to refine the protections provided to human subjects. By the s, federal policy was made consistent across multiple agencies, and a series of ethical organizations and government commissions have continued to contribute to the literature of human subject research. A timeline of significant legislation, regulations and other developments appears below. Description: Physician has an ethical responsibility to the patient as well as to the medical tradition. Description: Requires that drugs be shown to be safe before marketing. This leads to the need for human trials. Description: Informed consent required for experiments. Experiments must be scientifically necessary and conducted by qualified personnel. Human trials should be preceded by animal studies and surveys of a disease”s natural history. Benefit to science must be weighed against risks and suffering of experimental subjects. Description: A physician shall always bear in mind the obligation of preserving human life. The health of the patient shall be the physician”s first consideration. A physician shall act only in the patient”s interest when providing medical care which might have the effect of weakening the physical and mental condition of the patient. Description: Ethical responsibility for medical experiments lies with the study”s principal investigators. Description: Ethical responsibility for developing policies governing standards of medical care in the Clinical Center. Description: FDA empowered to ban drug experiments in humans pending animal trials for safety. Description: Clinical investigators required to certify informed consent as required by the Kefauver-Harris amendments. Milestone: Helsinki Declaration signed by U. Description: Clinical research should be based on animal and laboratory experiments. Clinical research should be conducted and supervised only by qualified medical workers. Clinical research should be preceded by a careful assessment of risks and benefits to the patient. Human beings should be fully informed and must freely consent to the research. Responsibility for the human subject must always rest with a medically qualified person, and never with the subject. Results of experiments that do not comply with ethical guidelines should not be accepted for publication.

Plutonium files


The Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments ACHREestablished to review allegations of abuses of human subjects in federally sponsored radiation research, was charged with identifying appropriate standards to evaluate the ethics of cold war radiation experiments. Based on the evidence from ACHRE”s Ethics Oral History Project and extensive archival research, we conclude that the Code, at the time it was promulgated, had little effect on mainstream medical researchers engaged in human subjects research. Although some clinical investigators raised questions about the conduct of research involving human beings, the medical profession did not pursue this issue until the s. Coronavirus Resource Center. All Rights Reserved. Twitter Facebook Email. This Issue. Ruth R. Lederer, PhD ; Jonathan D. Moreno, PhD. Save Preferences. Privacy Policy Terms of Use. Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. Institutional sign in: OpenAthens Shibboleth. Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, and more. Purchase access Subscribe to the journal. Sign in to download free article PDFs Sign in to access your subscriptions Sign in to your personal account. Get free access to newly published articles Create a personal account or sign in to: Register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles Access PDFs of free articles Manage your interests Save searches and receive search alerts. Get free access to newly published articles. Create a personal account to register for email alerts with links to free full-text articles. Sign in to save your search Sign in to your personal account. Create a free personal account to access your subscriptions, sign up for alerts, and more. Purchase access Subscribe now. Purchase access Subscribe to JN Learning for one year. Sign in to customize your interests Sign in to your personal account. Create a free personal account to download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts, customize your interests, and more. Privacy Policy. Sign in to make a comment Sign in to your personal account. Create a free personal account to make a comment, download free article PDFs, sign up for alerts and more. Our website uses cookies to enhance your experience.

Radiation test 1946-2015 archive number 8dfj9d


This guide provides a roadmap and capsule descriptions of each section of the report. The Executive Summary explains why the committee was created, their approach, and their key findings and recommendations. The Preface explains why the Committee was created, the President”s charge, and the Committee”s approach. The Introduction describes the intersection of several developments: the birth and remarkable growth of radiation science; the parallel changes in medicine and medical research; and the intersection of these changes with government programs that called on medical researchers to play important new roles beyond that involved in the traditional doctor-patient relationship. The Introduction concludes with a section titled “The Basics of Radiation Science” for the lay reader. In chapter 1 we report what we have been able to reconstruct about government rules and policies in the s and s regarding human experiments. We focus primarily on the Atomic Energy Commission and the Department of Defense, because their history with respect to human subjects research policy is less well known than that of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare now the Department of Health and Human Services. Drawing on records that were previously obscure, or only recently declassified, we reveal the perhaps surprising finding that officials and experts in the highest reaches of the AEC and DOD discussed requirements for human experiments in the first years of the Cold War. In chapter 2 we turn from a consideration of government standards to an exploration of the norms and practices of physicians and medical scientists who conducted research with human subjects during this period. We include here an analysis of the significance of the Nuremberg Code, which arose out of the international war crimes trial of German physicians in Using the results of our Ethics Oral History Project, and other sources, we also examine how scientists of the time viewed their moral responsibilities to human subjects as well as how this translated into the manner in which they conducted their research. Of particular interest are the differences in professional norms and practices between research in which patients are used as subjects and research involving so-called healthy volunteers. In chapter 3 we return to the question of government standards, focusing now on the s and s. In the first part of this chapter, we review the well-documented developments that influenced and led up to two landmark events in the history of government policy on research involving human subjects: the promulgation by DHEW of comprehensive regulations for oversight of human subjects research and passage by Congress of the National Research Act. In the latter part of the chapter we review developments and policies governing human research in agencies other than DHEW, a history that has received comparatively little scholarly attention. We also discuss scandals in human research conducted by the DOD and the CIA that came to light in the s and that influenced subsequent agency policies. With the historical context established in chapters 1 through 3, we turn in chapter 4 to the core of our charge. Here we put forward and defend three kinds of ethical standards for evaluating human radiation experiments conducted from to These are 1 basic ethical principles that are widely accepted and generally regarded as so fundamental as to be applicable to the past as well as the present; 2 the policies of government departments and agencies at the time; and 3 rules of professional ethics that were widely accepted at the time. We embed these standards in a moral framework intended to clarify and facilitate the difficult task of making judgments about the past. In chapter 5, we look at the Manhattan Project plutonium-injection experiments and related experimentation. Sick patients were used in sometimes secret experimentation to develop data needed to protect the health and safety of nuclear weapons workers. The experiments raise questions of the use of sick patients for purposes that are not of benefit to them, the role of national security in permitting conduct that might not otherwise be justified, and the use of secrecy for the purpose of protecting the government from embarrassment and potential liability. In contrast to the plutonium injections, the vast majority of human radiation experiments were not conducted in secret. Indeed, the use of radioisotopes in biomedical research was publicly and actively promoted by the Atomic Energy Commission.

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Government human test subjects

From tothe United States conducted about atmospheric nuclear tests–more than the other nuclear states put together at that time. At that time, many of these servicemen did not know about the effects of radiation exposure and did not question if their health was at risk. After leaving the armed services, many developed serious health complications, including cancer. For years, these veterans tried to seek assistance and compensation from the Veterans Administration VA. However, the VA has denied some of these claims for assistance because the US government has asserted that the veterans were not exposed to unsafe levels of radiation. InCongress passed a bill that compensated atomic veterans, but only if they had specific types of cancer, including lung, bone, and skin cancers. This committee not only investigated the cases of the atomic veterans but also cases of people being injected with plutonium without their consent. The committee eventually released its report and concluded that many of the test subjects, including the atomic veterans and civilians, were unaware that they participated in these tests and therefore did not give consent. A year later, President Clinton apologized to all people involved with US nuclear radiation testing, including the atomic veterans. Some of the first atomic veterans were servicemen who were sent to Hiroshima and Nagasaki to help clean up the two cities after the atomic bombings. Approximatelytroops were involved in the occupation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Some veterans noticed effects quickly. The doctors who examined him during his discharge examination in claimed that the sores were caused by a fungus. This was only the beginning of his deteriorating health, which included lipoma, or cancer of the fatty tissue. The US government estimates that the Marines in Nagasaki were externally exposed to 1. Being in the presence of plutonium or uranium does not necessarily cause harm to a living organism. Both elements undergo alpha decayin which an alpha particle an atom with two protons and two neutrons is released. These alpha particles cannot penetrate the skin. However, if plutonium or uranium is inhaled or ingested, then it can lead to health complications, such as cancer and tumors. During the early Cold War, the United States wanted to prepare servicemen for the possibility of a nuclear war and placed them only miles away from nuclear test detonation sites. Depending on the particular shot, servicemen were stationed approximately 6 to 11 kilometers approximately 3. The DoD did not conduct urine tests or other bioassay tests at the time of exposure, so there was no analysis of how many radioactive particles were inhaled or ingested. Mostly Navy servicemen were present at these tests. They were on observation ships about 15 to 30 miles away from ground zero. While these tests happened many decades ago, the memories of witnessing these nuclear explosions have haunted many atomic veterans. It has affected me. Sworn to secrecy, many of these servicemen never told anyone of what they witnessed. Some feared that if they spoke about witnessing the tests, they could be tried for treason and shot. Many of these tests took place at night or very early in the morning, before the sun rose. Many recalled the light was so bright that the soldiers could see through their skin and muscle and see their veins and bones. That you can visually see them like an x-ray? Once the light faded, the fireball appeared, and the overpressure came, knocking many people over. The heat that followed was so intense that some people ran screaming and calling out for their mothers. After the initial blast passed, the mushroom cloud appeared. The damage from the explosions was immediately evident. Nearby trucks, bulldozers, and tank retrievers were reduced to scraps of metal. Servicemen were not provided protective gear beyond what they were issued by the military.Mind Control Hearings from the President”s Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experimentation


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