Solved Place The Following In Order Of Increasing Atomic Radius. As O Br

Periodic trends are specific patterns that are present in the periodic table that illustrate different aspects of a certain element, including its size and its electronic properties. Major periodic trends include: electronegativity, ionization energy, electron affinity, atomic radius, melting point, and metallic character. Periodic trends, arising from the arrangement of the periodic table, provide brianowens.tvists with an invaluable tool to quickly predict an element”s properties. These trends exist because of the similar atomic structure of the elements within their respective group families or periods, and because of the periodic nature of the elements.

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Electronegativity Trends

Electronegativity can be understood as a brianowens.tvical property describing an atom”s ability to attract and bind with electrons. Because electronegativity is a qualitative property, there is no standardized method for calculating electronegativity. However, the most common scale for quantifying electronegativity is the Pauling scale (Table A2), named after the brianowens.tvist Linus Pauling. The numbers assigned by the Pauling scale are dimensionless due to the qualitative nature of electronegativity. Electronegativity values for each element can be found on certain periodic tables. An example is provided below.

Figure (PageIndex{1}): Periodic Table of Electronegativity values

Electronegativity measures an atom”s tendency to attract and form bonds with electrons. This property exists due to the electronic configuration of atoms. Most atoms follow the octet rule (having the valence, or outer, shell comprise of 8 electrons). Because elements on the left side of the periodic table have less than a half-full valence shell, the energy required to gain electrons is significantly higher compared with the energy required to lose electrons. As a result, the elements on the left side of the periodic table generally lose electrons when forming bonds. Conversely, elements on the right side of the periodic table are more energy-efficient in gaining electrons to create a complete valence shell of 8 electrons. The nature of electronegativity is effectively described thus: the more inclined an atom is to gain electrons, the more likely that atom will pull electrons toward itself.

From left to right across a period of elements, electronegativity increases. If the valence shell of an atom is less than half full, it requires less energy to lose an electron than to gain one. Conversely, if the valence shell is more than half full, it is easier to pull an electron into the valence shell than to donate one. From top to bottom down a group, electronegativity decreases. This is because atomic number increases down a group, and thus there is an increased distance between the valence electrons and nucleus, or a greater atomic radius. As for the transition metals, although they have electronegativity values, there is little variance among them across the period and up and down a group. This is because their metallic properties affect their ability to attract electrons as easily as the other elements.

According to these two general trends, the most electronegative element is fluorine, with 3.98 Pauling units.

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Another easier way to remember the trend of metallic character is that moving left and down toward the bottom-left corner of the periodic table, metallic character increases toward Groups 1 and 2, or the alkali and alkaline earth metal groups. Likewise, moving up and to the right to the upper-right corner of the periodic table, metallic character decreases because you are passing by to the right side of the staircase, which indicate the nonmetals. These include the Group 8, the noble gases, and other common gases such as oxygen and nitrogen.

In other words: Move left across period and down the group: increase metallic character (heading towards alkali and alkaline metals) Move right across period and up the group: decrease metallic character (heading towards nonmetals like noble gases)Metallic Character Trend IK.png

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