Which Of The Following, Which Is The Strongest Acid? ? Which Of The Following Is The Strongest Ac

Binary Acids

Binary acids are certain molecular compounds in which hydrogen is bonded with a nonmetal.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsA binary acid ‘s strength depends on the H-X bond ‘s strength; the weaker the bond, the stronger the acid.The names of binary acids begin with “hydro-” followed by the name of the other element, modified to end with “-ic.”Binary acids are one of two classes of acids; the second are oxoacids (or oxyacids), which consist of hydrogen, oxygen, and another element.Key Termsbinary acid: molecular compounds in which hydrogen is combined with a second nonmetallic elementpKa: a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution; a weak acid has a pKa value in the approximate range −2 to 12 in water, and a strong acid has a pKa value of less than about −2.

Acid Strength and Bond Strength

Binary acids are certain molecular compounds in which hydrogen is combined with a second nonmetallic element; these acids include HF, HCl, HBr, and HI.

HCl, HBr, and HI are all strong acids, whereas HF is a weak acid. The acid strength increases as the experimental pKa values decrease in the following order:

HF (pKa = 3.1)

Hydrochloric acid: Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) in water. It is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. Hydrochloric acid is found naturally in gastric acid. It is a member of the binary acids.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe central atom ‘s electronegativity and the number of oxygen atoms determines oxoacid acidity.Carboxylic acids are an important subclass of organic oxoacids and the most common type of organic acid.Carboxlic acids are characterized by the presence of at least one carboxyl group and have a general formula of R-COOH, where R is some monovalent functional group.Key Termsoxyacid: an acid containing oxygen, as opposed to a hydracid (oxoacid)carboxylic acid: any of a class of organic compounds containing a carboxyl functional group (a carbon with one double bond to an oxygen and a single bond to another oxygen, which is in turn bonded to a hydrogen)

Sulphuric acid: Drops of the concentrated oxoacid sulfuric acid (sulphuric acid) rapidly dehydrate a piece of cotton towel.

Electronegativity of the Central Atom

Consider the simple oxyacids HOI (hypoiodous acid), HOBr (hypobromous acid), and HOCl (hypochlorous acid). These acids can be arranged in order of their pKavalues and, by extension, their relative strengths:

HOCl pKa = 7.5 a = 8.6 a = 10.6

Recall that smaller values of pKa correspond to greater acid strength. Therefore, HOCl is the strongest acid and HOI is weakest, and acid strength decreases as the central halogen descends on the periodic table.

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The strength of the acid is determined by the central atom’s electronegativity relative to the surround atoms in the molecule. Because Cl is the most electronegative, it draws the bulk of the electrons in the HOCl molecule toward itself; because H and Cl are on opposite ends of the molecule, Cl pulls at the electrons in the H-O bond, thereby weakening it. The weaker the H-O bond, the more easily the H+ can ionize in water, and the stronger the acid.

Number of Oxygen Atoms Around the Central Atom

Consider the family of chlorooxoacids, which are arranged below in order of pKa values:

HOClO3 pKa = -8 2 pKa = -1.0 2H.

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A carboxylic acid: Carboxylic acids are organic oxoacids characterized by the presence of at least one carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written as -COOH or -CO2H.

Carboxylic acids are the most common type of organic acid. Among the simplest examples are formic acid H-COOH, which occurs in ants, and acetic acid CH3-COOH, which gives vinegar its sour taste. Acids with two or more carboxyl groups are called dicarboxylic, tricarboxylic, etc. The simplest dicarboxylic example is oxalic acid (COOH)2, which is just two connected carboxyls. Mellitic acid is an example of a hexacarboxylic acid. Other important natural examples include citric acid (in lemons) and tartaric acid (in tamarinds).

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Salts and esters of carboxylic acids are called carboxylates. When a carboxyl group is deprotonated, its conjugate base, a carboxylate anion, forms. Carboxylate ions are resonance stabilized, and this increased stability makes carboxylic acids more acidic than alcohols. Carboxylic acids can be seen as reduced or alkylated forms of the Lewis acid carbon dioxide; under some circumstances they can be decarboxylated to yield carbon dioxide.

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