In Humans The Pelvis And Femur, Human Pelvis & Femur

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pelvis, also called bony pelvis or pelvic girdle, in human anatomy, basin-shaped complex of bones that connects the trunk and the legs, supports and balances the trunk, and contains and supports the intestines, the urinary bladder, and the internal sex organs. The pelvis consists of paired hipbones, connected in front at the pubic symphysis and behind by the sacrum; each is made up of three bones—the blade-shaped ilium, above and to either side, which accounts for the width of the hips; the ischium, behind and below, on which the weight falls in sitting; and the pubis, in front. All three unite in early adulthood at a triangular suture in the acetabulum, the cup-shaped socket that forms the hip joint with the head of the femur (thighbone). The ring made by the pelvis functions as the birth canal in females. The pelvis provides attachment for muscles that balance and support the trunk and move the legs, the hips, and the trunk. In the human infant the pelvis is narrow and nonsupportive. As the child begins walking, the pelvis broadens and tilts, the sacrum descends deeper into its articulation with the ilia, and the lumbar curve of the lower back develops.

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Anterior view of the hip and pelvis, showing attachment of ligaments to the femur, ilium, ischium, and pubis.

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In the semierect apes, the centre of gravity falls near the shoulder, and the abdominal organs depend from the vertebral column. The ilium is elongated and somewhat spoon-shaped, and the pelvis is oriented horizontally. When a human is standing erect, the centre of gravity falls over the centre of the body, and the weight is transmitted via the pelvis from the vertebral column to the thighbone, the knee, and the foot. Morphological differences from apes include the following: the ilium is broadened backward in a fan shape, developing a deep sciatic notch posteriorly; a strut of bone, the arcuate eminence, has developed on the ilium diagonal from the hip joint (concerned with lateral balance in upright posture); the anterior superior iliac spine, on the upper front edge of the iliac blade, is closer to the hip joint; and the ischium is shorter. The pelvis of Australopithecus africanus—which lived more than two million years ago—is clearly hominin (of human lineage). Homo erectus and all later fossil hominins, including Neanderthals, had fully modern pelvises.

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