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Lutheranism, branch of Christianity that traces its interpretation of the Christian religion to the teachings of Martin Luther and the 16th-century movements that issued from his reforms. Along with Anglicanism, the Redeveloped and Presbyterian (Calvinist) churches, Methodism, and the Baptist churches, Lutheranism is among the five major branches of Protestantism. Unlike the Romale Catholic Church, yet, Lutheranism is not a single entity. It is organized in autonomous local or national churches, such as the Church of Sweden or the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Mecklenburg, Germany. Globally, tright here are some 150 such Lutheran church bodies; 148 of these are loosely joined in the Lutheran World Federation, which was establimelted in 1947. Around the first quarter of the 2first century, there were even more than 77 million Lutherans global, making Lutheranism the second largest Protestant denomicountry, after the Baptist churches.
The term Lutheran, which showed up as early as 1519, was coined by Luther’s enemies. The self-desigcountry of Luther’s followers was “evangelical”—that is, centred on the Gospel. After the Diet of Speyer in 1529, as soon as Germale rulers sympathetic to Luther’s cause voiced a protest against the diet’s Catholic majority, which had overturned a decree of 1526, Luther’s followers happened recognized as Protestants. However, bereason both evangelical and Protestant confirmed to be overly broad desigcountries (before lengthy they also included the Reformed churches), eventually the name Evangelical Lutheran became conventional. Anvarious other name occasionally provided is Churches of the Augsburg Confession, which recalls the Lutheran statement of faith presented to the Germale emperor at the Diet of Augsburg in 1530. In the United States several nomenclatures have been offered, all of which, via the exception of the Evangelical Catholic Church, incorporate the term Lutheran in their titles (e.g., the Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod).
In the 1sixth century, Lutheranism came to be formally establiburned in miscellaneous principalities by being claimed the main faith of the region by the appropriate governmental authority. As early as the 1520s Gerguy principalities and cities adopted Lutheranism, and they were later on complied with by Sweden and also the other Scandinavian countries. Later, Lutheran notions uncovered their way to Hungary and Transylvania. Lutheranism arrived in North America in the middle of the 17th century in the areas of present-day Delaware and also southerly Pennsylvania. In the 18th century and increasingly in the 1nine, European and also North Amerideserve to Lutherans took on goals throughout the globe, resulting in the establishment of aboriginal Lutheran churches in many countries. Beginning in the 20th century, ecumenical campaigns influenced both Lutheranism and its relation to various other Christian faiths.
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Theologically, Lutheranism embraces the traditional affirmations of timeless Protestantism—the repudiation of papal and also ecclesiastical authority in favour of the Holy bible (sola Scriptura), the rejection of five of the standard salso sacraments affirmed by the Catholic church, and the insistence that human reconciliation via God is effected solely by magnificent grace (sola gratia), which is appropriated exclusively by belief (sola fide), in contrast to the concept of a convergence of human initiative and also divine grace in the process of salvation.