Purdue Onl In Apa, How Is The Reference List Generally Arranged?

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This is a guide to the 7th Edition of APA style, which is a recent update to the APA citation style.

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Your lecturer may prefer APA 6th Edition. Check your subject outline to see which version of APA you have been asked to use. If the subject outline does not specify which APA edition you should be using, please check with your lecturer.

If you are supposed to use APA 6th Edition, please go to the APA (6th Edition) Referencing Guide:


Remember, you have to cite every piece of information that came from another source, whether or not it is in your own words. Everything cited in the text must appear in the reference list, and everything in your reference list must be something you have referred to in text. Make sure you don't have anything in one place that isn't in the other.

Notes on the layout for your reference list:

Layout of page:

The reference list starts on a new page, after your assignment and before any appendices. Place the word “References”, centered, at the top of the page. APA does not require other formatting for the title of your reference page (like bold or underlined), but check with your lecturer.

Order of references:

For APA the reference list is arranged in alphabetical order of authors' surnames.If a reference has no author, list it alphabetically according to the title. Ignore the words 'A', 'An' and 'The' at the beginning of a corporate author or title for deciding where it fits alphabetically.If there are two references by the same author, list them in order of publication date with the older one first.For example:Bloggs, J. S. (n.d.)…Bloggs, J. S. (2016)…Bloggs, J. S. (2018a)….Bloggs, J. S. (2018b, September)…Bloggs, J. S. (in press)…N.B. A year without a date is considered to be “older” than a year with a date (“nothing comes before something”), so 2018 will go before 2018, September – and a month without a day will go before a month with a day, so 2018, September will go before 2018, September 12. Please note that the year only is required in-text, so you will need to follow the advice below whenever you have multiple citations in the same year.If references by the same author have been published in the same year, list them alphabetically by title. Letters 'a', 'b', etc. are placed after the year, e.g. (2019a), (2019b).N.B. If you have a full date, only use the title to order the references if the date is identical. Always use 'a', 'b', etc after the year, if more than one work has been published by the same author in the same year, as this is used in the in-text referencing, e.g. (2019a, April 12), (2019b, March 23).For example:

Queensland Health. (2017a, April 9). Managing your asthma symptoms. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/news-alerts/news/managing-asthma-symptoms

Queensland Health. (2017b, August 23). Five things you might not know about asthma. https://www.health.qld.gov.au/news-alerts/news/5-things-you-might-not-know-about-asthma

Format of titles:

APA uses sentence case for all titles except for journal titles.

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Begin each title and subtitle with a capital letter, but only names should be capitalised for all titles other than journal titles.

Below is an example of a reference list formatted in APA style. Mouse over the references to find more information about writing a reference list.

This list has been single spaced for this guide, but you will probably be asked to double-space your assignment, and that includes the reference list.


Barnet, S., Bellanca, P., & Stubbs, M. (2013). A short guide to college writing. Pearson Education.This is the format for a book using APA style.Author, A. A. (year of publication). Title of work. Publisher.
Caron, T. (2008). Teaching writing as a con-artist: When is a writing problem not? College Teaching, 56(3), 137-139. https://doi.org/10.3200/CTCH.56.3.137-139For journal articles, only the TITLE of the JOURNAL
and the VOLUME NUMBER are italicised. Also note that the journal title is in “title case” (i.e. the first letter of each word is capitalised)Note that the article title is in sentence case and is not italicised. The punctuation and capitalisation you use is part of the style.
Cismas, S. C. (2010). Educating academic writing skills in engineering. In P. Dondon & O. Martin (Eds.), Latest trends on engineering education (pp. 225-247). WSEAS Press.
Drew, S., & Bingham, R. (2010). The guide to learning and study skills: For higher education and at work. Gower.Another book citation. It is likely that the majority of your reference list will be books and journal articles. Notice that the book title is in sentence case and in italics
Löfström, E. (2011). “Does plagiarism mean anything? LOL.” Students’ conceptions of writing and citing. Journal of Academic Ethics, 9(4), 257-275. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-011-9145-0 This journal article has a doi (digital object identifier). This unique string of letters and numbers provides a persistent link to content online. The DOI itself is the combination of numbers and letters following the “https://doi.org/”. The APA referencing style wants you to use a DOI for resources like online journal articles (if you can find one).If you can’t find a doi use the URL of the journal website.
Soles, D., & Soles, D. (2005). The academic essay: How to plan, draft, revise, and write essays. Studymates.
Turner, K., Krenus, B., Ireland, L., & Pointon, L. (2011). Essential academic skills. Oxford University Press. Give the name of the publisher for books, reports, brochures – but not for periodicals (i.e. journal, magazine, newspaper…).

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Note: the DOIs and URLs in the reference list above should be hyperlinked to the appropriate page, but the code for hyperlinking and the code for mousover text was not compatable. In your reference list, make sure your DOIs and URLs are hyperlinked to the relevant page.


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