11) For gas exchange to be efficient, the respiratory membrane must be ________. A) at least 3 micrometers thick B) 0.5 to 1 micrometer thick C) between 5 and 6 micrometers thick D) The thickness of the respiratory membrane is not important in the efficiency of gas exchange.


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12) With the Bohr effect, more oxygen is released because a(n) ________. A) decrease in pH (acidosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond B) decrease in pH (acidosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond C) increase in pH (alkalosis) strengthens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond D) increase in pH (alkalosis) weakens the hemoglobin-oxygen bond
13) The most powerful respiratory stimulus for breathing in a healthy person is ________. A) loss of oxygen in tissues B) increase of carbon dioxide C) pH (acidosis) D) pH (alkalosis)
14) Nerve impulses from ________ will result in inspiration. A) the ventral respiratory group B) the chemoreceptor center C) Broca"s center D) the preoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus
15) In the plasma, the quantity of oxygen in solution is ________. A) only about 1.5% of the oxygen carried in dissolved form B) about equal to the oxygen combined with hemoglobin C) greater than the oxygen combined with hemoglobin D) not present except where it is combined with carrier molecules
16) Which of the following statements is incorrect? A) During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid. B) Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants. C) Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing. D) The chest wall becomes more rigid with age.
17) Which of the choices below describes the forces that act to pull the lungs away from the thorax wall and thus collapse the lungs? A) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid B) compliance and transpulmonary pressures C) the natural tendency for the lungs to recoil and transpulmonary pressures D) compliance and the surface tension of the alveolar fluid
18) Which of the following does not influence the increase in ventilation that occurs as exercise is initiated? A) psychic stimuli B) decrease in lactic acid levels C) proprioceptors D) simultaneous cortical motor activation of the skeletal muscles and respiratory center
19) Which of the following is not a form of lung cancer? A) adenocarcinoma B) Kaposi"s sarcoma C) small cell carcinoma D) squamous cell carcinoma
20) Which of the following is not an event necessary to supply the body with O2 and dispose of CO2? A) pulmonary ventilation B) blood pH adjustment C) internal respiration D) external respiration
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