Explanation:

After DNA is transcribed into RNA, the RNA goes with post-transcriptional modifications and is then sent of the nucleus to the cytoplasm. From there, the mRNA is brought to the ribosomes, some situated on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and also some free-floating, in order to be interpreted into proteins. Proteins are then packaged and also transported to their respective areas for consumption.

You are watching: During translation, chain elongation continues until:

The nucleolus is responsible for synthesizing and assembling ribosomal subdevices. The nucleus houses DNA and also is the site of transcription, but not translation. Mitochondria are necessary for cellular respiration and also ATP synthesis. Lysosomes digest cellular wastes and also defective proteins.


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Example Inquiry #1 : Translation


Throughout translation, amino acid elongation proceeds until __________.


Possible Answers:

no better amino acids are needed


the ribosome reads a stop codon


the ribosome reaches the finish of the mRNA strand


all tRNA molecules are empty


the polypeptide is long enough for folding to begin


Correct answer:

the ribosome reads a stop codon


Explanation:

Elongation proceeds till a stop codon occupies the A-site of the ribosome. The soptimal codon is a three-base signal current within the mRNA. Tbelow are 3 stop codons: UAG, UAA, and also UGA.

There are 3 principle procedures to translation. Initiation occurs once the ribosomes encounters the start codon, AUG, and also recruits a methionine tRNA. Elongation of the polypeptide occurs as the ribosomes proceeds to recruit tRNA molecules and also develop the peptide chain. Termicountry occurs when the ribosome encounters a speak codon and releases the completed polypeptide.


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Example Inquiry #11 : Translation


What is the outcome of a missense mutation?


Possible Answers:

Inclusion of a different amino acid


Tbelow is no adjust to the peptide product


A change in the analysis frame that outcomes in a nearly entirely different protein


Early termicountry of translation


Correct answer:

Inclusion of a various amino acid


Explanation:

Missense mutations are point mutations that reason a solitary amino acid in a protein to be changed. This might or might not impact the use of the protein. When one amino acid is reinserted by another amino acid from the very same course, such as replacing one polar amino acid through one more, use is typically retained. When an amino acid from a various class is provided, such as replacing an acidic amino acid through a simple amino acid, the protein folding might be affected and usability might fail.

The other answers define various other forms of mutations. Silent bring about no adjust to the protein primary framework. Nonfeeling mutations cause at an early stage termination. Frametransition mutations transition the analysis structure of the codon sequence, sevedepend transforming the protein complace.


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Example Concern #12 : Translation


Which of the adhering to is not a action for the elongation process of translation? 


Possible Answers:

Peptide bond formation 


Codon recognition


Translocation


RNA splicing


All of these are associated in elongation


Correct answer:

RNA splicing


Explanation:

The three steps for the elongation process of translation are codon acknowledgment, peptide bond formation, and also transplace. These steps basically correspond to the various tRNA positions in the ribosome. tRNA enters and matches the codon of the mRNA strand also. A peptide bond is then formed in between the tRNA amino acid and also the ribosomal amino acid chain. The empty tRNA and peptide strand then change to make room for the following resias a result of enter to ribosome structure.

RNA spicing occurs in the nucleus as part of post-transcriptional change. Introns are removed to geneprice a mature mRNA strand also prior to translation have the right to happen.


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Example Question #11 : Translation


Which of the adhering to is not associated in the procedure of translation?


Possible Answers:

hnRNA


All of these are associated in the process of translation


tRNA


rRNA


mRNA


Correct answer:

hnRNA


Explanation:

Transcription leads to the manufacturing of hnRNA (heterogeneous nuclear RNA), which mainly is composed of pre-mRNA and should go with handling and change to create mRNA and also leave the nucleus.

The other 3 selections, mRNA (messenger RNA), tRNA (move RNA), and also rRNA (ribosomal RNA), all play energetic functions in the process of translation. mRNA serves as the codon design template. tRNA matches anticodons to mRNA and also carries amino acids. rRNA forms a big part of the ribosome framework and plays a functional duty as the website of translation.


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Example Question #12 : Translation


What is the end result of translation?


Possible Answers:

A molecule of RNA


An enzyme


A polypeptide chain


A molecule of DNA


A transport vesicle


Correct answer:

A polypeptide chain


Explanation:

Translation is the process of making a polypeptide chain from an mRNA layout. No brand-new molecules of RNA or DNA are synthesized throughout this procedure. tRNA is used to lug amino acids to the ribosome, binding an anticodon to the exposed codon of mRNA. The amino acid is then released from the tRNA and also included to the growing chain of amino acids attached to the ribosome. When the ribosome reaches a speak codon, it releases the mRNA strand also and also amino acid sequence. The amino acid sequence is the final outcome of translation, and is recognized as a polypeptide.

Polypeptides have the right to then undergo folding to end up being sensible proteins. All enzymes are proteins, yet not all proteins go on to come to be enzymes; some serve other features.


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Example Inquiry #11 : Translation


What is the nucleotide triplet found on mRNA strands called?


Possible Answers:

Release factor


Codon


P-site


Anti-codon


Correct answer:

Codon


Explanation:

The mRNA strand is analyzed into a protein utilizing tripallows, or 3 nucleotides. Each triplet is referred to as a codon. Messenger or mRNA codons bind to complementary anti-codons on tRNA molecules, which carry the corresponding amino acids.


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Example Concern #11 : Translation


Which nucleotide in the mRNA codon is dubbed the wobble position?


Possible Answers:

First position


All positions have the right to wobble


2nd position


Third position


Correct answer:

Third position


Explanation:

The wobble position refers to the capacity of the third position nucleotide of the codon and also first position nucleotide of the anticodon tRNA sequence (as soon as analysis in a 5’ to 3’ direction) to exhilittle non-traditional base pairing. This allows fewer tRNA molecules to exist bereason a tRNA molecule is able to bind to even more than one codon, which rises efficiency.


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Example Inquiry #11 : Translation


Which of the complying with molecules provides the power for elongation of the polypeptide chain during translation?


Possible Answers:

GTP


ADP


GDP


ATP


Correct answer:

GTP


Explanation:

Throughout the elongation phase of translation, GTP is supplied to carry out the energy to transfind a tRNA molecule from the A-site to the P-site. GTP is likewise required to relocate the ribosome dvery own the mRNA strand also to the next codon.

See more: Which One Of The Following Lines Best Illustrates Personification? ?


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Example Question #11 : Translation


What is the duty of release determinants in the termicountry stage of translation?


Possible Answers:

Repush translation


Bind to ribosomes to stimulate polypeptide chain release


Assist the tRNA molecule delivering the terminator amino acid


Recognize the speak codon 


Correct answer:

Recognize the soptimal codon 


Explanation:

In translation, soptimal codons within the mRNA strand signal the termicountry of the protein sequence to be analyzed. The sheight codon nucleotide triplets are UAG, UGA, and UAA. Stop codons do not bind to an anticodon within a tRNA molecule, yet quite to release factors. Release factors are proteins that recognize soptimal codons. The binding of release components triggers the disassembly of the translational apparatus.


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