His Holiness the 1fourth Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, defines himself as a simple Buddhist monk. He is the spiroutine leader of Tibet. He was born on 6 July 1935, to a farming family, in a small hamlet located in Taktser, Amdo, northeastern Tibet. At the age of 2, the kid, then named Lhamo Dhondup, was known as the reincarnation of the previous 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso.
The Dalai Lamas are believed to be manifestations of Avalokiteshvara or Chenrezig, the Bodhisattva of Compassion and also the patron saint of Tibet. Bodhisattvas are realized beings inspired by a wish to acquire Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings, who have vowed to be reborn in the civilization to assist humankind.
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Education in TibetHis Holiness began his monastic education at the age of six. The curriculum, derived from the Nalanda tradition, contained 5 major and also 5 minor topics. The significant subjects contained logic, fine arts, Sanskrit grammar, and medication, however the greatest focus was offered to Buddhist approach which was even more divided right into a even more five categories: Prajnaparamita, the perfection of wisdom; Madhyamika, the ideology of the middle Way; Vinaya, the canon of monastic discipline; Abidharma, metaphysics; and also Pramana, logic and epistemology. The 5 minor subjects consisted of poeattempt, drama, astrology, complace and also synonyms.
At 23, His Holiness sat for his final examicountry in Lhasa’s Jokhang Temple, throughout the annual Great Prayer Festival (Monlam Chenmo) in 1959. He passed via honors and also was awarded the Geshe Lharampa degree, identical to the greatest doctorate in Buddhist philosophy.
Leadership ResponsibilitiesIn 1950, after China"s invasion of Tibet, His Holiness was called upon to assume full political power. In 1954, he checked out Beijing and met with Mao Zedong and various other Chinese leaders, including Deng Xiaoping and also Chou Enlai. Finally, in 1959, following the brutal suppression of the Tibetan national upincreasing in Lhasa by Chinese troops, His Holiness was required to escape into exile. Due to the fact that then he has actually been living in Dharamsala, north India.
In exile, the Central Tibetan Administration led by His Holiness appealed to the United Nations to take into consideration the question of Tibet. The General Assembly embraced three resolutions on Tibet in 1959, 1961 and also 1965.
Democratization ProcessIn 1963, His Holiness presented a draft democratic constitution for Tibet , adhered to by a variety of recreates to democratize the Tibetan management. The brand-new democratic constitution was called "The Charter of Tibetans in Exile". The charter enshrines liberty of speech, belief, assembly and movement. It also gives detailed guidelines on the functioning of the Tibetan Administration through respect to Tibetans living in exile.
In 1992, the Central Tibetan Administration publiburned guidelines for the constitution of a future, complimentary Tibet. It proposed that once Tibet becomes complimentary the initially task will be to put up an interim federal government whose prompt duty will certainly be to elect a constitutional assembly to framework and embrace a democratic constitution for Tibet. His Holiness has made clear his hopes that a future Tibet, consisting of the three typical districts of U-Tsang, Amexecute and Kham, will be federal and also democratic.
In May 1990, as a result of His Holiness’s recreates the Tibetan management in exile was fully democratized. The Tibetan Cabinet (Kashag), which until then had actually been appointed by His Holiness, was liquified along with the Tenth Assembly of the Tibetan People"s Deputies (the Tibetan parliament in exile). In the same year, exiled Tibetans living in India and also even more than 33 various other countries elected 46 members to an expanded Eleventh Tibetan Assembly on a one-perkid one-vote basis. That Assembly then chosen the members of a new cabinet.
In September 2001, in a better step in the direction of democratization the Tibetan electorate straight elected the Kalon Tripa, the Chairguy of the Cabinet. The Kalon Tripa appointed his own cabinet that then had actually to be apshowed by the Tibetan Assembly. This was the first time in Tibet"s lengthy history, that the world had chosen their political leaders. Because the direct election of the Kalon Tripa, the tradition through which the Dalai Lamas, via the school of the Ganden Phodrang, have actually organized tempdental and spiroutine authority in Tibet, has actually involved an end. Since 2011, when he dprogressed his political authority to the elected leadership, His Holiness has explained himself as reexhausted.
Peace InitiativesOn 21 September 1987 in an address to members of the United States Congress in Washington, DC, His Holiness proposed a Five-Point Peace Plan for Tibet as an initial action in the direction of a tranquil solution of the worsening case in Tibet. The five points of the setup were as follows:Transdevelopment of the whole of Tibet right into a zone of peace.Abandonment of China"s populace deliver policy that threatens the incredibly existence of the Tibetans as a world.Respect for the Tibetan people"s fundamental humale legal rights and also democratic freedoms.Repair and also security of Tibet"s natural environment and the abandonment of China"s use of Tibet for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons and dumping of nuclear waste.Commencement of earnest negotiations on the future standing of Tibet and also of connections between the Tibetan and also Chinese individuals.
On 15 June 1988, in an address to members of the European Parliament in Strasbourg, His Holiness better elaborated on the last point of the Five-Point Peace Plan. He proposed talks between the Chinese and Tibetans causing a self-governing democratic political entity for all 3 provinces of Tibet. This entity would be in association through the People"s Republic of China and the Chinese Government would continue to be responsible for Tibet"s foreign plan and defence.
Universal RecognitionHis Holiness the Dalai Lama is a guy of peace. In 1989 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his non-violent struggle for the liberation of Tibet. He has actually consistently supported plans of non-violence, even in the confront of excessive aggression. He also came to be the initially Nobel Laureate to be known for his concern for international ecological problems.
His Holiness has travelbrought about even more than 67 nations extending 6 continents. He has actually got over 150 awards, honorary doctoprices, prizes, and so on., in recognition of his message of tranquility, non-violence, inter-religious understanding, global responsibility and also compassion. He has additionally authored or co-authored even more than 110 books.
His Holiness has actually organized discussions with heads of various religions and also participated in many kind of events cultivating inter-religious harmony and also knowledge.
Due to the fact that the mid-1980s, His Holiness has actually involved in a dialogue with contemporary researchers, mainly in the areas of psychology, neurobiology, quantum physics and cosmology. This has actually caused a historical teamwork between Buddhist monks and world-renowned researchers in trying to help individuals attain peace of mind. It has actually additionally led to the addition of contemporary scientific research to the standard curriculum of Tibetan monastic organizations re-established in exile..
Political RetirementOn 14 March 2011 His Holiness composed to the Assembly of Tibetan People"s Deputies (Tibetan Parliament-in-exile) requesting it to relieve him of his temporal authority, considering that according to the Charter of the Tibetans in Exile, he was technically still the head of state. He announced that he was ending the practice through which the Dalai Lamas had wielded spiroutine and political authority in Tibet. He intfinished, he made clear, to resume the standing of the first four Dalai Lamas in concerning himself only with spiritual affairs. He confirmed that the democratically elected management would certainly assume finish formal duty for Tibetan political affairs. The formal office and also family members of the Dalai Lamas, the Gaden Phodrang, would certainly henceforth just fulfil that function.
On 29 May 2011 His Holiness signed the record formally transferring his temporal authority to the democratically elected leader. In so doing he formally put an finish to the 368-year old tradition of the Dalai Lamas functioning as both the spiritual and also temporal head of Tibet.
The FutureAs far ago as 1969, His Holiness made clear that whether or not a reincarcountry of the Dalai Lama must be recognised was a decision for the Tibetan world, the Mongolians and also people of the Himalayan regions to make. However, in the lack of clear guidelines, tright here was a clear hazard that, need to the concerned public expush a strong wish to recognise a future Dalai Lama, vested interests could make use of the situation for political ends. Because of this, on 24 September 2011, clear guidelines for the acknowledgment of the following Dalai Lama were publimelted, leaving no room for doubt or deception.
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His Holiness has actually claimed that as soon as he is around ninety years old he will certainly consult leading Lamas of Tibet’s Buddhist heritages, the Tibetan public, and other pertained to civilization with an interest in Tibetan Buddhism, and assess whether the college of the Dalai Lama should proceed after him. His statement additionally explored the different methods in which the acknowledgment of a follower could be done. If it is decided that a Fifteenth Dalai Lama should be well-known, duty for doing so will rest mainly on the concerned police officers of the Dalai Lama’s Gaden Phodrang Trust. They have to consult the assorted heads of the Tibetan Buddhist heritages and also the reliable oath-bound Dharma Protectors who are connected inseparably to the family tree of the Dalai Lamas. They need to look for advice and direction from these involved parties and also carry out the procedures of search and also acknowledgment in accordance with their instruction. His Holiness has proclaimed that he will certainly leave clear written instructions around this. He further warned that acomponent from a reincarcountry recognized with such legitimate methods, no recognition or acceptance should be offered to a candidate preferred for political ends by anyone, consisting of agents of the People’s Republic of China.