Based On The Animation, How Many Electron Carriers Are Reduced In The Krebs Cycle Only?

Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor, the last molecule to receive the electrons from the system.

You are watching: Based on the animation, how many electron carriers are reduced in the krebs cycle only?

According to the animation, what does oxygen get reduced to at the end of the electron transport chain?
According to the animation, what does the electron transport chain do to the concentration of hydrogen ions (protons)?
Iron is considered an essential element for many bacteria. Based on the animation, how would lack of iron affect energy production of a bacterium?
Lack of iron would mean lack of heme, and thus lower amounts of functioning cytochrome proteins. This would mean lower energy yields.
In fermentation, energy is released from sugars or organic molecules, such as amino acids, organic acids, purines and pyrimidines. Fermentation produces only small amounts of ATP (one or two ATP molecules for each molecule of starting material). Fermentation does not require oxygen, but sometimes can occur in the presence of oxygen.
NAD+ is reduced to NADH, and there is a net production of 2 ATP molecules by substrate-level phosphorylation.

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In eukaryotic cells, the outer mitochondrial membrane contains the electron transport carriers and ATP synthase; whereas, in most prokaryotic cells, they are located in the plasma membrane.
Proton pumps occur as some of the carriers in the electron transport chain (ETC) actively transport protons across the membrane. The phospholipid membrane is normally impermeable to protons, so this unidirectional pumping establishes a proton gradient. Within the inner mitochondrial membrane, the carriers of the electron transport chain (ETC) are arranged into three complexes.

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Which of the following is the correct sequence of events that occur during the energy-conserving stage of glycolysis? 1 – An enzyme relocates a phosphate group of 3-phosphoglyceric acid to form 2-phosphoglyceric acid. 2 – Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is converted to 1,3 diphosphoglyceric acid. 3 – A high-energy phosphate is transferred from phosphoenolpyruvic acid to ADP, forming ATP. 4 – By the loss of a water molecule, 2-phosphoglyceric acid is converted to another molecule, upgrading the phosphate bond to a high-energy bond. 5 – A high-energy phosphate is moved to ADP, forming ATP, which is the first net ATP production of glycolysis.




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