By the finish of this area, you will:Explain the miscellaneous responses to immigration in the duration over timeExplain how various recreate motions responded to the climb of commercial capitalism in the Gilded Age

Suggested Sequencing

Use this Narrative to provide students a greater understanding of the Progressive activity and also exactly how Progressives prefer Jane Addams used their place to help brand-new immigrants.

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Jane Addams used the Social Gospel to remedy what she experienced as a restoration of Amerihave the right to democracy. Coming of age in the decades after the Civil War, she feared autonomous ehigh quality was intimidated by the increase of the urban, industrial culture. Uninterested in traditional domestic functions for woguys, she constructed a public career as a social reprevious and tranquility activist that noted her as among the leading public figures of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Putting her convictions into practice, she worked diligently to improve the lives of functioning civilization and also immigrants in quickly broadening Amerihave the right to cities by helping establish Hull Housage, a settlement house for immigrants in Chicago.


Hull Housage ended up being a main gathering place and also enabled reformer Jane Addams to help many immigrants in its Chicback area.

Founded in 1889, Hull House soon ended up being globally famous as a pioneering venture in social reform and a design of how familiarity can modeprice the rampant social divisions of the era. Addams actually gained the idea for Hull House from a visit she had actually made to England also to watch Toynbee Hall, a benevolent task begun in the East End of London in which college-age men from the city readily available classes in topics such as literary works and business economics to impoverimelted residents in the hope that the young men would come to understand the bad residents much better and also improve the top quality of their stays. The negotiation house concept quickly attracted the attention of various other progressives, and by 1900, more than 100 such establishments existed in the United States.

Addams threw herself into numerous useful reforms to enhance the stays of immigrants at Hull Housage. She walked roadways freshly populated by Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, and also others as she sought to discover as a lot about them as possible to help them adapt to their brand-new people. On Saturday nights, reformers would invite whole households to their houses for food, conversation, and also also dancing. Classes in art and music were offered, and also child-care and a kindergarten. If the require occurred, Addams and also her colleagues served as midwives and readily available a haven for woguys confronting domestic abuse.

Addams constantly encouraged immigrants to celebprice their very own nationwide holidays and also maintain many of their custom-mades. True to her democratic heritage, but, she additionally told them the story of Abraham Lincoln and also the Civil War. In her autobiographical book, Twenty Years at Hull Housage through Autobiographical Notes (1910), she redubbed not just listening to stories immigrants told her about their lives in international lands but likewise conveying to them the tale of the sixteenth president’s defense of the right of humale ehigh quality. She described how prevalent civilization from tiny communities favor the one in which she was raised in Illinois left for battle to encertain that a government of the world and by the human being would certainly not perish from the challenge of the earth. Addams was devoted not just to the cause of social ehigh quality yet likewise to the principle of Americanization and the hope that individuals from varied backgrounds can learn to share standard values. Immigrants attfinished classes and lectures that taught civics lessons in democracy. These programs were designed to make the immigrants good citizens.

Seeing households battle daily eventually pumelted reformers favor Addams to go after political reasons and also fellowship and also assimilation. Florence Kelley, a progressive that moved to Hull House in 1892, and also Addams began to assistance efforts to enhance working conditions for womales and also children. In 1893, they joined other recreate groups in the Chicback location to force the Illinois legislature to pass laws finishing the employment of youngsters under 14 years of age and limiting women’s work-related to eight hrs per day. They likewise challenged regional political leaders to remove the flow of raw sewage right into Chicago’s highways.

In 1906, Addams aided defeat a provision in a federal bill aimed at barring newcomers who can not check out or create in their indigenous language. The intent of this regulation wregarding curtail the circulation of newcomers from Eastern and Southern Europe whose impoveriburned scenarios had actually denied them avenues for a simple education and learning. Addams opposed this stipulation because she knew many people from these areas and realized their lack of formal training was not an excellent indicator of their true capacity or character. The Naturalization Act of 1906 ultimately did bar Japanese laborers, yet literacy limitations were rerelocated from the final version. Ultimately, but, zealous nativists, mobilized in establishments choose the Immigration Restriction Organization, required a 1917 bill via Congress requiring immigrants that sought naturalization to be able to check out and also write in any language.

During the postbattle Red Streatment in 1919, feeling their civil civil liberties had been violated, Addams assisted raise bail for Russian immigrants arrested for their Socialist beliefs. Although she never came to be as affiliated with the struggles of Afrideserve to Americans as she did with her white immiprovide neighbors, she spoke out versus lynching and also was outraged by the outbreak of a race riot in her native state in 1908. The complying with year, she became a beginning member of the NAACP. Inevitably, female suffrage attracted her fervent support too. Progressives prefer Addams felt strongly that securing the vote for womales would raise the moral tenor of a society plagued by corruption and also intolerance. The ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 1920 was one of the many considerable accomplishments of the steady era.


In this 1913 photograph, Jane Addams (center) stands with various other suffragists Julia Lathrop (left) and also Mary McDowell (right). All 3 dealt with tough for womales to earn the appropriate to vote through the Nineteenth Amendment.

Jane Addams regarded World War I as a risk to her vision of a cooperative and also humane people. Throughout the war, she sustained the pacifist activity. In 1915, as the USA was considering entering the war in Europe, she aided create the Women’s Peace Party. She also met through President Woodrow Wilkid before he led the nation right into battle and also urged him to take into consideration a setup of mediation to resolve the bloody problem in Europe.

Addams represented reformers during the Gilded Period and also Progressive Age who were involved about the troubles of contemporary commercial society. Hull Housage attempted to assist immigrants adapt to Amerihave the right to culture and “Americanize” them. Many type of of the social democratic recreates Addams supported were implemented at the state and national levels in the time of the Progressive Era and New Deal.

Review Questions

1. In her 1902 book Democracy and also Social Ethics, Jane Addams’s primary argument embraced

much less government regulation of corporationscorporate and business support for regulations to boost the conditions of workerstighter limitations on immigrants coming to the United Statesthe require for women to assume appropriate domestic roles

2. Jane Addams’s Hull Housage was a social experiment designed to

preserve the standing and power of native-born Americansregulate the flow of immigrants right into crowded citiesdisclose the danger the foreign-born presented to typical valuesmitigate social tensions through an alliance of middle-course and working-course people

3. Jane Addams sustained a number of political agendas, which included

literacy needs for immigrants entering America and also requiring them to learn EnglishUNITED STATE enattempt right into World War I to promote the spreview of democracylegislations limiting the workday to eight hrs and extending suffrage to womentaxation breaks for big corporations to help produce even more jobs

4. Jane Addams’s individual philosophy was based upon the

rebirth of conventional women’s rolesimplementation of Social Darwinism to assist the poorideals of equality and also democracy as espooffered by Abraham Lincolnadvancement of working problems for kids in the workforce

5. In the late nineteenth and also early twentieth centuries, Jane Addams was considered the embodiment of

the Enlightenmentthe Progressive movementSocial Darwinist beliefscontemporary nativism

6. In the early twentieth century, Jane Addams’s reputation as “the the majority of dangerous womale in America” among her political adversaries was due to her solid idea in

giving woguys the best to votehelping eastern and southern European immigrants assimilate in Amerihave the right to societypacifism and also maintaining the USA out of World War Iproducing Hull House

Free Response Questions

Describe how Jane Addams applied her conception of American democracy to the difficulties of immigration and race.Exordinary Jane Addams’s opposition to battle and how she corresponded war with her resistance to the exploitation of immigrants.

AP Practice Questions

“It is not tough to watch that although America is pledged to the democratic best, the check out of democracy has actually been partial, and also that its ideal success for this reason far has actually been puburned alengthy the line of the franchise. Democracy has actually made little bit attempt to assert itself in social affairs. We have actually refoffered to move past the position of its eighteenth-century leaders, who thought that political ehigh quality alone would certainly secure all good to all males. We conscientiously followed the gift of the ballot hard upon the gift of liberty to the negro, but we are rather unmoved by the fact that he resides among us in a useful social ostracism. We hasten to offer the franchise to the immigive from a feeling of justice, from a heritage that he must have actually it, while we dub him via epithets deriding his past life or existing occupation, and feel no duty to invite him to our homes. We are required to acexpertise that it is only in our local and national national politics that we try extremely difficult for the ideal so dear to those that were enthusiasts as soon as the century was young. We have practically given it up as our right in social intercourse.”

Jane Addams, The Subjective Necessity for Social Settlements, 1892

Refer to the excerpt provided.

1. In the statement, Jane Addams is advocating an principle that would certainly support

the end of job discrimination based upon genderthe appropriate of women’s suffrageadaptation and acceptance of brand-new immigrantspolitical redevelops including the end of boy labor

2. Which of the following teams would certainly a lot of most likely oppose the sentiments expressed in the excerpt?

Antebellum reformers in favor of public educationNativists in the 1850sJacksonian DemocratsEarly twentieth-century Progressives

3. In enhancement to a rise in immigration from Europe, what variable brought about the occasions described in the excerpt?

Rapid industrialization and also the need for unprofessional workersThe development from an agriculture-based to a service-based economyThe shift from a wartime to a peacetime economyTechnological advances that led to more leisure time for the masses

Key Sources

Addams, Jane. Democracy and also Social Ethics. New York: Macmillan, 1913.

Addams, Jane. Twenty Years at Hull House through Autobiographical Notes. New York: Macmillan, 1912. See esp. chap. 2, “Influence of Lincoln,” pp. 23-42 and also chap. 11, “Immigrants and also their Children,” pp. 231-258.

Suggested Resources

Davis, Allen F. Amerihave the right to Heroine: The Life and Legend of Jane Addams. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke. Jane Addams and also the Dream of American Democracy: A Life. New York: Basic Books, 2002.

Knight, Louise W. Jane Addams and also the Spirit of Action. New York: W. W. Norton & Company type of, 2010.

Platt, Harold L. “Jane Addams and also the Ward Boss Revisited.” Environmental History5 (2000):194-222.

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Wiebe, Robert H. The Search for Order, 1877-1920. New York: Hill and Wang, 1966.